Saturday, May 16, 2020
One of the toughest things parents have to face every day is getting their children to eat right at the dinner table. Breakfast, lunchtime, and dinnertime to some families can be stressful times of the day because the parents and the children just cannot seem to agree on what the children should eat, why they should eat it, how much they should eat, and when they should eat. Many parents know what their children should eat, but just do not know how to get their children to actually eat them. In the book, It s Not About the Broccoli: Three Habits to Teach Your Kids for a Lifetime of Healthy Eating, Dina Rose insists that the only way to get children to eat what you want them to eat is to move away from the nutrition mindsetÃ¢â¬âthat is solelyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦About The Author Dina Rose, PhD, is an experienced, researcher, teacher, and public speaker who has helped many parents think more about shaping their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviors using her teaching method than thinking about nutrition. She is a sociologist, parent educator, feeding expert, active blogger on her own website, and writer for the Huffington Post and Psychology Today. DinaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother had passed away from an illness related to obesity when Dina was five months pregnant with her daughter. The premature death of her mother and the birth of her daughter pushed her to develop her passion to teach healthy eating habits to her own daughter and to other children. How Focusing on Nutrition Leads to Poor Habits Dina Rose first explains what is wrong with the nutrition mindset and how it leads parents to fall into traps that ultimately lead to inadvertently teaching children bad eating habits, instead of good ones. I can honestly admit to falling into these traps myself (and can admit for my mother that she falls into these traps as well). The first trap that leads to bad eating habits is parents being selectively attentive to the ingredients in certain foods that that are good while totally discounting the bad qualities of that food. For example, some parents zero in on the calcium their children get from eating mac Ã¢â¬ËnÃ¢â¬â¢ cheese and overlook the extremely high amount of sodium in it. Another nutrition trap parents do not realize they fall into is
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
With a competitive spirit, people are driven to act in ways that they would not otherwise and the results can be drastic. In the case of James D. Watson and Francis Crick, in WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s novel the Double Helix, this sensation of competition leads to one of the greatest discoveries in biology. But the actions of Watson, Crick, and their competitors may or may not be justified for the results that they yield; the powerful conflict of rivalry has beneficial, detrimental, and questionably moral consequences that shaped the pathway to DNAÃ¢â¬â¢s structure. At times, regardless of the setbacks, rivalry can be advantageous by giving people the inspiration to continue. Debating on whether to give up the race, Watson realizes the full implications thisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦What could have been a successful collaboration becomes a large setback for Watson since he and Crick now had to basically start from the beginning. As the search continues, each scientist in this rivalry is finding a possible solution but then being disproved by another since they suspend crucial pieces of the puzzle from each other. Although Franklin places them in a state of near defeat, Watson and Crick find the information they need in a questionable manner. As Watson and Crick become a few steps away from discovering DNAÃ¢â¬â¢s structure, the actions they take are arguably justifiable and they realize the significance of this rivalry. After Maurice Wilkins, who works in the same lab as Franklin, gave away FranklinÃ¢â¬â¢s work to Watson, and notes: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦that if we could all agree where science was going, everything would be solved,Ã¢â¬ (170). Maurice brings a good point; if they worked together, DNAÃ¢â¬â¢s structure could have been discovered sooner as well as other important mysteries of science. However, certain events would not have occurred and there is an equal chance nothing would have been uncovered. As everything falls into place, every action taken in order for Watson and Crick to reach the answer is reasonable considering that it lead to biologyÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest structures. In the end, Watson, Crick, and Wilkins receives the Nobel Prize but the reality of what they did to get there is not as straightforward. The race for DNAÃ¢â¬â¢s structure was full
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Impact on Liabilities Auditing and Assurance Services. Answer: Introduction The recent global financial crisis of 2007-08 has made significant influence on the role of auditing and assurance services that laid considerable changes in the liabilities of auditors. The global financial crisis primarily occurred due to risk taking behavior of top five banks of US. These banks increased financial risk that caused manuapltion in the financial system. The role of investment bank in creating housing and credit bubble in the economy raised several concerns for the liability of auditors (Andenas and Chiu, 2013). Lehman Brothers was fourth largest investment bank in US, which collapsed in financial crisis. This paper includes discussion over the liabilities of auditors after the global financial crisis. In this, research is performed by using several resources such as peer-reviewed journals, internet and books. Through this, the impact of global financial crisis on the responsibilities and liabilities of auditors are analyzed. At last, recommendations are provided for an accounting firm to ensure effective fulfillment of enhanced liabilities. Literature Review Lehman Brothers appointed Ernst Young (EY) for auditing their accounts and financial reports independently. Due to this, EY as independent auditor was responsible for presenting fair opinion regarding the accuracy of financial statements and their ability to present true financial condition of the company. EY was aware about the faulty accounting practices of Lehman Brothers such as Repo 105 and liquidity pool assets. Due to this, the practice of EY was accused in public (Wiggins et al., 2014). It failed to fulfill its duties and responsibilities of presenting true picture of a firms financial state. Due to this, the global financial crisis has considerable impact on the liability of auditors. According to Xu et al., (2013), audit behavior significantly changed in Australia after the global economic crisis. In 2008-09, auditors became more active in terms of providing opinions related to the going concern issue than the period 2005-2007. They have increased their efforts to audit the financial statement of the firm and to provide reasonable assurance. The auditing report and fee reflects the changes in the process of audit. In this study, it is also found that audit fee has increased after the global financial crisis as the auditors efforts also increased in significant manner. On the other hand, Carson et al., (2012) state that going-concern opinions of auditor played critical role in causing financial crisis. By reviewing financial statements fairness at the reasonable level, auditors provide opinions regarding going-concern of firm. Auditor opinions set expectations among investors for the stock value and return. Compensation structure, auditor size and auditor-client relationship are important factors that influence an auditors going-concern opinions for a firm. In this way, this study depicts that the auditors are liable for giving right judgment regarding the going-concern of firm. Dart (2011) found in his investigation that auditors economic dependency and non-audit service create threat for the auditors independence. Auditors provide audit and non-audit services jointly to the client that causes more threat for the independency. It is also determined in this research that auditors economically depends on the firm and this also has potential to influence their opinions for the firms financial statements. Although, long term relationship among client and auditor affect the independency of auditors but the above stated factors causes great impact. Investors perceives that auditors independency may affect the audit quality and consequently consequences for them. Tepalagul and Lin (2016) also highlight the relationship between auditor independence and audit quality on the basis of articles which were published from 1976-2013. There are mainly four sources are determined that have great impact on the independence of auditors such as client-auditor affiliation, significance of client, working period and non-audit provisions are identified in this research as major areas of limiting the independence of the auditor for presenting fair opinions regarding the fairness of financial statement. The independence of auditors affects quality of audit at the greater extent and due to this global financial crisis is responsible for enhancing liability of auditing firms for the maintenance of auditing. The silence of auditors at the time of global financial crisis caused changes in the liabilities of auditors. In accordance to Mala and Chand (2012), International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB) issued an audit alert and depicted responsibilities of auditors in terms of applying Fair Value Accounting (FVA) practices. They became more accountable to acknowledge rule of FVA and to disclose them properly. Auditors liability to understand accounting practices and their proper disclosure became more complex after the global financial crisis. Rotta (2010) stated that lack of ethics is also closely related to the role of auditors during the financial crisis. The profession of auditors was insufficient to understand ethical responsibilities towards the stakeholders. Ethics has close connection with the quality of audit and consequently the financial downturn. In auditing professional, the inclusion of ethical rules and standards becomes highly importance after the collapse of major financial institution during global financial crisis. On the basis of above literature review, it can be stated that auditor failed to reflect the actual condition of firms financial condition and this caused raised concerns for their ability to perform audit functions. After the financial crisis, liabilities of auditors extended through the application of range of regulation and ethical principles within this profession. Application Financial crisis made auditors more liable to access the declaration in concern of the stated accounts. They need to assess an organizations approach of valuing the asset and liabilities completely. Due to this, auditors become responsible to examine the approach of organization to value their assets. Through this, auditors can detect the misstated financial values in the accounting statements and to prevent fraud (Laux and Leuz, 2010). After economic crisis, auditors duties and responsibilities in terms of reviewing the financial statements is likely to become highly complex and broad. An accounting firm may need to improve practices of valuing assets of the organization, which auditing financial statement. The global financial crisis raised concerns for auditors independence. They become ethically responsible for ensuring objectivity and independence in the reviewing the financial statement of firms. Ethical issues for auditors mainly occur when they provide audit and non-audit services to a client. It creates relationship between auditor and firm that affects their ability to audit the financial statements and accounts independently (ACCA, 2011). Auditing fee is considered as important factor to raise concerns for the auditor after the financial crisis. Huge amount of fee was provided by the firms to the auditors for giving consultancy services that played critical role in creating ethical issues for the profession of audit. The audit fee affects independency of auditors in maintaining transparency and objectivity (Pl, 2011). The auditor independency factors have potential to make auditors and accounting firms more liable to follow ethical standard in providing audit and non-audit ser vices to the client. The relationship of auditors fee and audit quality has potential to create liability for disclosing remuneration. Auditors become liable to disclose the information regarding remuneration and other perks and benefits receive from a client for their services. They also need to mention the type of non-audit services offered to client and corresponding fee. Through this, auditors are liable to declare their independency within auditing of financial accounts of firms (ACCA, 2011). On the other hand, global financial crisis made auditors ethically responsible to make required disclosure for non-audit services. Auditors became responsible for framing, implementing and disclosing audit committees policy in regard to the offered non-auditing services for ensuring transparency (ACCA, 2011). Due to this, accounting firm may experience increase in liabilities towards client, public and investors. Internal audit is a major area in which liability of auditors has changed significantly after the global financial crisis. Auditors became liable to examine the application informed management practices and safeguards for ensuring reporting of accurate financial data about firms operations. Without ensuring this, they are prohibited to examine the accounts of a firm. Auditors are ethically responsible to examine the arrangements of internal control within an organization (Healy and Palepu, 2012). By gaining satisfaction for internal control arrangements, auditing firm can serve to the client. It is critical for an accounting firm to ensure accomplishment of this liability for preventing legal claims. In the global financial crisis, auditors silence and negligence increased ethical responsibilities towards the public. Professional competence and due care and professional behavior becomes major principle for the auditing service. These principles made auditors ethically liable for ensuring maintenance of professional competence in auditing the financial statement of a firm. They become responsible for behaving more professionally by taking reasonable steps to reduce audit risk (Gramling et al., 2012). Auditors are liable to take reasonable actions and steps for indentifying and accessing risk of financial misstatement, obtaining required audit evidences, providing fair opinion about the accuracy of firms financial statement. The role of auditors in the global financial crisis increased ethical liabilities of auditing firms (ACCA, 2011). These have significant potential to increase liability of auditors in an accounting firm. Auditor independence before the global financial crisis was limited due to their multidisciplinary practices including tax practices, consultation and legal advisor. This caused development of familiar relationship between client and auditors that limits their independency. Due to this, auditors become responsible for establishing a supervisory board for examining and ensuing auditors independence throughout the process of auditing (Du Plessis et al., 2010). Similarly, professional skepticism and professional judgment are two aspects included in the auditors responsibility. It makes an auditors liable to exercise relevant training, knowledge and skills to make informed decisions and actions in regard to the auditing firm. Similarly, auditors are also ethically responsible to have an attitude of questioning the accounting practices and reporting. It makes them liable to being alert for the conditions that may raise the possibilities of material manipulation in the financial statement (Adelopo, 2016). In this way, auditors liability becomes broad in terms of planning and providing audit services to the firms. Auditors became liable to address the needs of public in terms of providing opinion for the audited financial statement of a firm. They are required to collect sufficient evidences for proving the accuracy of their opinions and consequently financial statements. Through this, they need to ensure that enough evidences are presented by them to ensure independence in auditing process (Rapoport, 2011). The auditors of accounting firms are liable to provide evidence-based opinions for the firms operations and financial statement. Additionally, global financial crisis also placed liabilities for auditors in disclosing discussion between the client and auditing firm to make the auditing process valuable from the perspective of stakeholder. Auditors responsibilities are to present clear and precise statement about business model and potential risks, going-concern opinion and capital structure. Through this, auditors inform the stakeholders and other concerned parties about the fairness in reporting financial accounts (Kennedys, 2011). Auditors in accounting firm may face these liabilities in auditing process as the result of the financial downturn. Recommendation On the basis of above discussed literature for the impact of global financial crisis on the liabilities of auditors, it is determined that an accounting firm becomes responsible for fulfilling ethical and legal responsibilities, while auditing the financial statement of a firm. They need to ensure independency and reasonable assurance for their opinions for a firms financial conditions. The Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA), International Federation of Accountants (IFA) and International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB) are some key global accounting and regulatory bodies that are accountable to regulate the auditing firm by defining roles, responsibilities, duties and rights of the auditing firms (Adelopo, 2016). These bodies aim to regulate the auditors practices and to ensure adherence of professionalism throughout auditing process for ensuring objectivity, integrity and independence. By following the guidelines of these professional bodies, an accounting firm can fulfill its extended liabilities towards the stakeholders. This could be useful for firm to take required steps to improve the quality of auditing process. For managing audit quality, an accounting firm can follow the below framework, which is provided by IAASB to ensure auditors independency and integrity: (IFAC, 2013) On the basis of above framework, accounting firms needs to develop an environment for ensuring improvement in the quality of auditing. This framework indicates that an accounting firm should understand the interrelationship between input, output and process to develop a culture of produce quality audit. Input and process elements include personnel training and education, methods, standards and practices. Output can be improved by understanding stakeholders perception about audit quality as it would help an accounting firm to address the concerns of financial statement users, while providing auditing services (IFAC, 2013). It may improve the audit report value for the users. Conclusion The above framework also indicates importance of contextual factors in improving the quality of audit. Corporate governance, regulatory environment, cultural values and information systems some contextual factors should be considered by an accounting firm to improve quality of audit. These factors influence quality of audit either in direct or indirect way. Thus, IAASBs audit quality framework would be effective to include all concerned parties of the financial auditing process from the auditors to client, regulators and users (IFAC, 2013). These are ultimately for improving the quality audit and their inclusion could auditors to provide opinions independently. In the words of Al-Khaddash et al. (2013), litigation environment and regulatory framework can be used by accounting firm to improve the quality of audit as it provides a legitimate framework to determine financial reporting requirements of the firms in accordance to their operations, nature and size. This could allow an accounting firm to audit process more effectively and to provide fair opinion to the users. On the other hand, Knechel et al., (2012) state that the impact of auditors expertise and knowledge on the quality of audit process and consequently. By focusing on educating auditors about their emerging roles, responsibilities, duties and ethical liabilities in auditing process, an accounting firm can be effectively reduce the possibilities of any faults in the process of auditing and consequently causes of financial crisis in global economy. Additionally, Sweeney et al., (2010) state that ethical values of auditors have potential to influence the quality of audit report and opinion. Weak ethics may allow auditors to provide importance to personal benefit over utmost people. In such cases, auditor may flaw the process of auditing. Due to this, accounting firm can improve the quality of audit by encouraging auditors to maintain ethics of audit profession, while auditing clients financial statement. This may help to reduce the scope of faulty audit report. References Adelopo, I., (2016)Auditor Independence: Auditing, Corporate Governance and Market Confidence. Routledge. Al-Khaddash, H., Al Nawas, R. and Ramadan, A. (2013) Factors affecting the quality of auditing: The case of Jordanian commercial banks.International Journal of Business and Social Science,4(11). Andenas, M. and Chiu, I.H. (2013) The foundations and future of financial regulation: Governance for responsibility. UK: Routledge. Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) (2011) APB Tightens Ethical Standards. [Online]. Available at: https://www.accaglobal.com/pk/en/technical-activities/technical-resources-search/2011/july/apb-tightens-standards.html (Accessed: 14 September 2016). Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) (2011) Audit reform: aligning risk with responsibility. [Online]. Available at: https://www.accaglobal.com/content/dam/acca/global/PDF-technical/audit-publications/tech-af-arar.pdf (Accessed: 14 September 2016). Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) (2011) Audit under fire: a review of the post-financial crisis inquiries. [Online]. Available at: https://www.accaglobal.com/content/dam/acca/global/PDF-technical/audit-publications/pol-af-auf.pdf (Accessed: 14 September 2016). Carson, E., Fargher, N.L., Geiger, M.A., Lennox, C.S., Raghunandan, K. and Willekens, M. (2012) Audit reporting for going-concern uncertainty: A research synthesis.Auditing: A Journal of Practice Theory,32(sp1), pp.353-384. Dart, E. (2011) UK investors perceptions of auditor independence.The British Accounting Review,43(3), pp.173-185. Du Plessis, J.J., Hargovan, A. and Bagaric, M. (2010)Principles of contemporary corporate governance. Cambridge University Press. Gramling, A.A., Johnstone, K.M. and Rittenberg, L.E. (2012)Auditing. USA: Cengage Learning. Healy, P.M. and Palepu, K.G. (2012) Business Analysis Valuation: Using Financial Statements. USA: Cengage Learning. International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) (2010) International Standard On Auditing 200. [Online]. Available at: https://www.ifac.org/system/files/downloads/a008-2010-iaasb-handbook-isa-200.pdf (Accessed: 14 September 2016). Kennedys (2011) The Great Debate - the Future of Audit. [Online]. Available at: https://www.kennedyslaw.com/files/Uploads/Documents/CPAProtect_April2011.pdf (Accessed: 14 September 2016). Knechel, W. R., Krishnan, G. V., Pevzner, M., Shefchik, L. B., Velury, U. K. (2012) Audit quality: Insights from the academic literature.Auditing: A Journal of Practice Theory,32(sp1), pp. 385-421. Laux, C. and Leuz, C. (2010) Did fair-value accounting contribute to the financial crisis?.The Journal of Economic Perspectives,24(1), pp.93-118. Mala, R. and Chand, P., (2012) Effect of the global financial crisis on accounting convergence.Accounting Finance,52(1), pp.21-46. Pl, T. (2010) The impact of the economic crisis on auditing.European Integration Studies,8(1), pp.131-142. Rapoport, M. (2010) Role of Auditors in Crisis Gets Look. [Online]. Available at: https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748703814804576036094165907626 (Accessed: 14 September 2016). Rotta, C.P. (2010)A Short Guide to Ethical Risk. Gower Publishing, Ltd.. Sweeney, B., Arnold, D., Pierce, B. (2010) The impact of perceived ethical culture of the firm and demographic variables on auditors ethical evaluation and intention to act decisions.Journal of Business Ethics,93(4), pp. 531-551. Tepalagul, N. and Lin, L. (2015) Auditor Independence and Audit Quality A Literature Review.Journal of Accounting, Auditing Finance,30(1), pp.101-121. Wiggins, R.Z., Bennett, R.L. and Metrick, A. (2014) The Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy D: The Role of Ernst Young.Yale Program on Financial Stability Case Study. Xu, Y., Carson, E., Fargher, N. and Jiang, L. (2013) Responses by Australian auditors to the global financial crisis.Accounting Finance,53(1), pp.301-338.
Friday, April 17, 2020
Today Im going to talk about plastic bags and whether they should be banned. As you may know, plastic bags are one of the main sources of rubbish that end up polluting our rivers and oceans. In fact, the problem has become so immense that a huge island of rubbish containing plastic bags and other items has formed in the middle of the Northern Pacific Ocean. The area polluted by this rubbish is so vast that it covers an area greater than the size of Australia. So should plastic bags be banned? Plastic bags are a non-biodegradable, which means it they cannot decompose naturally. So they will remain on the earth forever. Plastic bags can cause environmental destruction and harm human health when they enter our environment. Pollution from plastic bags is known to make soil unfertile and can cause lung diseases like asthma when toxic gases are emitted from burning plastic bags. We will write a custom essay sample on Should plastic bag be banned or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Plastic bags are also responsible for the deaths of many animals on land and in the sea. For example, scientists have found sea turtles that have swallowed plastic bags because they mistake them for jellyfish. Sea turtles can live for many years and are very important for the biodiversity of our oceans. Many are now suffering slow and painful deaths because they cannot digest a plastic bag when swallowed. Why should we continue to use plastic bags when we only use them once? Because they cannot be recycled, we should consider using other more sustainable bags. Good examples already exist in other countries where they promote the use of canvas bags in supermarkets. In fact, plastic bags have been banned all together from one major city in Australia. Whilst banning plastic bags is unlikely to be supported in Malaysia, we need an education campaign to inform everyone about the environmental problems caused by plastic bags. Then, people may think twice before using a plastic bag next time they go shopping.
Saturday, March 14, 2020
Installing Perl Modules From CPAN There are several ways to install Perl modules from the Comprehensive Perl Archive Network on your Unix-based system. There is always more than one way to do things with Perl, and this is no different. Before embarking on any installation, download the module, unzip it and check out the documentation. Most modules are installed using the same method. Activate the CPAN Module The simplest way to install Perl modules to use the CPAN module itself. If you are the system administrator and want to install the module systemwide, youll need to switch to your root user. To fire up the CPAN module, just get to your command line and run this: If this is the first time youve run CPAN, its going to ask you a series of questions- in most cases, the default answer is fine. Once you find yourself staring at the cpan command prompt, installing a module is as easy as install MODULE::NAME. For example, to install the HTML::Template module youd type: CPAN should take it from there, and youll wind up with the module installed in your Perl library. Installing from the Command Line Lets say youre on your system command line and you just want to install a module as quickly as possible; you can run the Perl CPAN module via command line Perl and install it in a single line: Its always advisable to download a module yourself, especially if youre having problems installing with CPAN. If youre on the command line, you can use something like wget to grab the file. Next, youll want to unzip it with something like: This unzips the module into a directory and then you can go in and poke around. Look for the README or INSTALL files. In most cases, installing a module by hand is still pretty easy, though, although not as easy as CPAN. Once youve switched into the base directory for the module, you should be able to install it by typing:
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
NMR Characterization of Nylon 6 Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words
NMR Characterization of Nylon 6 - Research Paper Example So, this paper focusing on Nylon-6 will discuss the characterization of structure and morphology in Nylon-6 by solid state carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 NMR. Solid state NMR is one among the powerful tools for studying the polymer structure, morphology and the dynamics. (Mirau 2001). Nylon Ã¢â¬â 6 polymeric materials is an important polyamide that has wide applications ranging from carpets and automotive parts to intimate apparel. Nylon Ã¢â¬â 6 is also found to store large amounts of iodine making them a good solid-state electrolyte. Nylon 6 has the [-NH (CH2)5(CO)-] repeating group. The nylon -6 contains the crystalline lamella in an amorphous matrix. Though it is crystalline the presence of this amorphous matrix makes the crystallography difficult. As nylon Ã¢â¬â 6 has various applications in many fields, the study about the structure and the conversion level among has become essential. As the hydrogen bonding in the polyamides makes them an important plastic because of the strength it provides. Nylon is found to exist in two different crystalline forms. The most stable form at high temperature is the alpha form which consists of anti parallel chain in an extended from with the hydrogen bonds. The second phase is known as the gamma phase. This phase is found to contain hydrogen bonds as pleated sheets between the parallel chains. In this form, the methylene next to the amide is found to adopt a skew conformation which is similar to the secondary structure confirmation. The important features of the gamma form are (i) the length between repeat units is shortened (0.35 AÃ º). (ii) Methylene groups in the amide groups are found tilted towards the plane. The crystal structure of nylon 6 was studied using the 13Cand 15NCross Polarization/Magic Angle Spinning (CP/MAS) NMR spectroscopy. (Casanovas & Aleman 2002). A large number of polymers are used commercially and biologically based on the nitrogen contained in the polymer. N15 NMR is used for the
Monday, February 10, 2020
Buddhism - Annotated Bibliography Example In addition, BuddhaÃ¢â¬â¢s do not believe that in life there is something like fate and urges that human beings are the drivers of their own lives whereby, every human being has the capacity and ability to liberate themselves from any suffering that one might be going through. The nature of self entails the act of awareness or having some consciousness. However, the nature of the self is not specific to awareness of any kind but it tends to be very general. The nature of the self may involve certain things such: feelings, imagination, intuition, memory, thoughts to mention just but a few. This means that the preposition of awareness may not properly define the content of the nature of the self because awareness tends to have some limitation. In addition, the nature of the self is not limited to anything just the same way that human being have unlimited desire in life. For example, human being are never satisfied with what they have, they always want to work hard to earn more money to meet their unlimited desires, in the same way that the nature of the self is not limited to consciousness or awareness as discussed. The main aim of self is the realization of individual personal identity. The Sri Raman asserted that the nature of self entails a fabrication o f mind whereby, self awareness may involve realization of oneself . Philosophers Aristotle and Plato tried to substantiate whether the soul, minds and the body are separable from each other and whether the soul is immortal upon human death. Whereby, Aristotle assertions supported the eastern religion of Buddhism that the nature of the self as an activity and that self exist within human being but it is separable from the human body. Aristotle added that self when a person dies, both the body and the self perish. He further substantiated his assertion using a knife as an example. The knife was considered as the body that has a soul whereby,